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What is the shape of wormhole?

2018-11-10 21:18| 发布者: 德玛西亚| 查看: 120| 评论: 0|来自: 重庆桑拿网

摘要: Wormholes are often depicted as a narrow pipe, but a Russian physicist recently proposed a method to map the shape of symmetrical wormholes.

Sina Science and Technology News, Beijing time, November 10, according to foreign media reports, wormhole is a theoretical connection between remote space-time points of the channel. It is often portrayed as a narrow conduit with a large open mouth "gravity well" at each end. But the shape of the wormhole is unknown.

Although the existence of wormholes has not yet been confirmed, a Russian physicist recently proposed a method for mapping symmetrical shapes of wormholes based on the effect of wormholes on light and gravity.

In theory, the principle of penetrating wormholes (or four-dimensional channels in space and time) may be as follows: at one end of the wormhole, the strong gravitational pull of the black hole will suck matter into it; material will reach the "white hole" at the other end through the pipeline, and then be spit out by the white hole. At that time, the matter was far away from its original space-time position. However, although scientists have observed evidence of black holes in the universe, they have never found a trace of white holes.

Therefore, although Einstein's general relativity does not deny the existence of wormholes, wormholes (and the possibility of interstellar travel) have not yet been confirmed.

However, whether wormholes exist or not, scientists already know more about the behavior of light and gravitational waves.

A new study published in this paper points out that there is an indirect observable property of wormholes, that is, the light near wormholes shifts red. (Red shift refers to the shift of light frequency to the red part of the spectrum as the light moves away from a celestial body, so it is called red shift.)

Roman Konoplya, an associate professor at the Institute of Gravity and Cosmology at the Russian People's Friendship University, points out that if we know the red shift of light around a potential wormhole, we can determine the shape of the symmetrical wormhole by the frequency of gravitational waves.

Researchers usually do the opposite: calculate the behavior of light and gravity by knowing the shape of the celestial body, Conopolia said.

According to Kenuo, there are several ways to analyze the red shift near the wormhole. For example, the use of gravitational lensing, that is, the bending of light through large objects. Wormholes can also be regarded as a "large celestial body". This lens phenomenon can be measured by its influence on the faint light emitted by distant stars. (Conopolia added:'If we're lucky, maybe it's bright light from nearby stars. Another method is to measure the electromagnetic radiation near the wormhole in the process of attracting material.

Jolyon Bloomfield, a lecturer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Physics, said that we can understand the idea of this method by inferring the shape of a drum from the sound waves generated by the drum surface vibration.

"Different frequencies of sound correspond to different modes of vibration," Bloomfield said. In addition, the peaks and valleys of vibration will gradually slow down over time, reflecting the corresponding "attenuation law" of different vibration modes. Together with these two information, we can help us determine the shape of the drum.

"This article also wants to use similar ideas to judge wormhole shape. If we can try to'hear'the attenuation law of the wormhole's vibration frequency and achieve enough accuracy, we can infer the shape of the wormhole through the frequency spectrum and frequency attenuation velocity.

Coropolia's equation uses the red shift of wormholes, and then uses quantum mechanics to estimate how gravitational ripples in space-time affect electromagnetic waves in wormholes. On this basis, he wrote an equation that could calculate the geometry and quality of wormholes.

Since the laser interferometry gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) was launched in 2015, scientists have had the technology to measure gravitational waves. Now researchers hope to fine-tune LIGO measurements, because the more accurate the data, the more they can help scientists determine whether there are some strange substances in the universe, such as substances that are not made up of ordinary atomic particles. Bloomfield said these substances might support the celestial bodies.

But for now, wormholes exist only in theory, so Conopolia says that his equation does not represent any actual calculation results. He also pointed out that LIGO and other detectors can only measure the frequency of a single gravitational wave, but to determine the shape of wormholes, multiple frequencies are necessary.

"It is impossible to extract enough information from such poor data to study such a complex matter." Kenuo said. He pointed out that future research may reveal more details about the shape and nature of wormholes.

"Our results can also be applied to rotating wormholes as long as they are symmetrical enough," he added.

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